Antiretroviral Drugs Pose Low Risk to Breastfeeding Mothers, Infants

A new study published in the journal PLoS Medicine has found that breastfeeding mothers taking the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine have a low risk of side effects.

Mugwanya et al studied women and infants in Kenya and Uganda. Image credit: UW Center for Global Health of Women, Adolescents and Children / Paul Brown, Global WACh.
The study, led by University of Washington researcher Kenneth Mugwanya, is one of the first looking at the safety of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Two antiretroviral medications – tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, also known by its brand name, Viread, and combination tenofovir/emtricitabine, also known by its brand name Truvada – taken as daily preventive therapy is known as PrEP.
Dr. Mugwanya and co-authors looked at 50 pairs of mothers and infants in Ke… Read more

Antiretroviral Drugs Pose Low Risk to Breastfeeding Mothers, Infants

A new study published in the journal PLoS Medicine has found that breastfeeding mothers taking the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine have a low risk of side effects.

Mugwanya et al studied women and infants in Kenya and Uganda. Image credit: UW Center for Global Health of Women, Adolescents and Children / Paul Brown, Global WACh.
The study, led by University of Washington researcher Kenneth Mugwanya, is one of the first looking at the safety of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Two antiretroviral medications – tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, also known by its brand name, Viread, and combination tenofovir/emtricitabine, also known by its brand name Truvada – taken as daily preventive therapy is known as PrEP.
Dr. Mugwanya and co-authors looked at… Read more

Study Says Biological Clock Stimulates Thirst before Sleep

According to a study in rodents led by Prof. Charles Bourque of McGill University, the brain’s biological clock stimulates thirst in the hours before sleep.

This image shows thirst neurons (blue) in mouse SCN. Image credit: C. Gizowski et al / McGill University.
Biologists knew that rodents show a surge in water intake during the last two hours before sleep.
The new study revealed that this behavior is not motivated by any physiological reason, such as dehydration. So if they don’t need to drink water, why do they?
Prof. Bourque and co-authors found that restricting the access of mice to water during the surge period resulted in significant dehydration towards the end of the sleep cycle.
So the increase in water intake before sleep is a preemptive strike that guards against dehydration and serves to keep… Read more

Study Says Biological Clock Stimulates Thirst before Sleep

According to a study in rodents led by Prof. Charles Bourque of McGill University, the brain’s biological clock stimulates thirst in the hours before sleep.

This image shows thirst neurons (blue) in mouse SCN. Image credit: C. Gizowski et al / McGill University.
Biologists knew that rodents show a surge in water intake during the last two hours before sleep.
The new study revealed that this behavior is not motivated by any physiological reason, such as dehydration. So if they don’t need to drink water, why do they?
Prof. Bourque and co-authors found that restricting the access of mice to water during the surge period resulted in significant dehydration towards the end of the sleep cycle.
So the increase in water intake before sleep is a preemptive strike that guards aga… Read more

New Link Found between Body Fat, Fecal Bacteria

An international team of scientists has found a new link between the diversity of bacteria in the human fecal microbiome and levels of visceral fat (body fat that is stored in the abdominal cavity near a number of important internal organs and is linked with higher risks of metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes).

The new study provides further evidence of possible genetic influences on obesity, through heritable bacteria found in the fecal microbiome.
The team, led by King’s College London, found that participants with a more diverse community of bacteria in their feces had generally lower levels of visceral fat.
“This study has shown a clear link between bacterial diversity in feces and markers of obesity and cardiovascular risk, particularly for visceral fat,” said lead… Read more

New Link Found between Body Fat, Fecal Bacteria

An international team of scientists has found a new link between the diversity of bacteria in the human fecal microbiome and levels of visceral fat (body fat that is stored in the abdominal cavity near a number of important internal organs and is linked with higher risks of metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes).

The new study provides further evidence of possible genetic influences on obesity, through heritable bacteria found in the fecal microbiome.
The team, led by King’s College London, found that participants with a more diverse community of bacteria in their feces had generally lower levels of visceral fat.
“This study has shown a clear link between bacterial diversity in feces and markers of obesity and cardiovascular risk, partic… Read more

Cinnamon Cools Your Stomach, New Study Says

According to a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports , adding cinnamon to your diet can cool your stomach by up to two degrees.

Cinnamon. Image credit: Bertrand Thiry / CC BY-SA 3.0.
“The results of the study, which used pigs, seemed to show that cinnamon maintained the integrity of the stomach wall,” said study co-lead author Prof. Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh, from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia.
“When pigs feed at room temperature, carbon dioxide gas increases in their stomach.”
“Cinnamon in their food reduces this gas by decreasing the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin from the stomach walls, which in turn cools the pigs’ stomachs during digestion,” he said.
According to the authors, when the pigs are hot, they hyperventilate, which reduces carbon dioxide production.
With… Read more

Cinnamon Cools Your Stomach, New Study Says

According to a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports , adding cinnamon to your diet can cool your stomach by up to two degrees.

Cinnamon. Image credit: Bertrand Thiry / CC BY-SA 3.0.
“The results of the study, which used pigs, seemed to show that cinnamon maintained the integrity of the stomach wall,” said study co-lead author Prof. Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh, from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia.
“When pigs feed at room temperature, carbon dioxide gas increases in their stomach.”
“Cinnamon in their food reduces this gas by decreasing the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin from the stomach walls, which in turn cools the pigs’ stomachs during digestion,” he said.
According to the authors, when the pigs are hot, they hyperventilate, which reduc… Read more

Study: Great Tits Choose Spring Neighbors Based on Winter Friendships

Great tits ( Parus major ) pick their spring breeding sites to be near their winter flockmates, according to a new study by scientists at the University of Oxford, UK.

Two female great tits ( Parus major ). Image credit: Shirley Clarke / Fordingbridge Camera Club / CC BY-SA 3.0.
The study, published in the journal Ecology Letters , shows that as mated pairs of great tits settle down to breed in the spring, they establish their homes in locations close to their winter flockmates.
The birds also arrange their territory boundaries so that their most-preferred winter ‘friends’ are their neighbors.
“The great tits we study are a good general model for many other bird species,” said study lead author Dr. Josh Firth, a researcher at the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford.
“They form large flocks in th… Read more

En-Gedi Scroll Finally Deciphered

An international team of researchers led by University of Kentucky scientist Prof. Brent Seales has unlocked the text in the early Leviticus scroll from En Gedi — the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Completed virtual unwrapping for the En-Gedi scroll. Image credit: William Brent Seales et al.
In 1970, a team of Israeli archeologists from the Hebrew University and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) made a surprising discovery at En-Gedi, the site of a large, ancient Jewish community dating from the late eighth century BC until its destruction by fire circa 600 CE.
Excavations uncovered the Holy Ark of the En-Gedi synagogue, inside of which were multiple charred lumps of what appeared to be animal skin scroll fragments.
The IAA experts faithfully preserved t… Read more

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