A team of researchers at Northwestern University has discovered a type of retinal ganglion cell that may cause myopia when it dysfunctions. The study is published in the journal Current Biology .
This image shows an ON Delayed retinal ganglion cell. Image credit: Adam Mani & Gregory W. Schwartz, Northwestern University.
This study is part of the team’s larger body of research to reverse engineer the retina by identifying new retinal cell types in mice.
It was authored by Gregory Schwartz, assistant professor of ophthalmology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and Adam Mani, a postdoctoral fellow in ophthalmology at Feinberg.
“The retina has about 50 types of retinal ganglion cells, which together convey all the information we use to perceive the visual world,” the authors exp… Read more
The green-tea polyphenol Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) may be of particular benefit to patients struggling with amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, according to an international team of researchers led by Washington University in St. Louis. The research is published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry .
According to Kathrin Andrich et al , the Epigallocatechin gallate — a compound found in green tea leaves — may be of particular benefit to patients struggling with multiple myeloma and amyloidosis. Image credit: Ascyrafft Adnan.
Patients with amyloidosis or multiple myeloma are susceptible to a rare condition known systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL), in which parts of the body’s own antibodies become misshapen and can accumulate in various organs, including the heart and kidneys.
AL i… Read more
The growth of bacteria can be stimulated by antibiotics, according to a study published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution .
A DNA coverage plot for Escherichia coli following 60 generations (96 h) of growth in the presence and absence of doxycycline: data in the presence (three inner annuli, ‘Dox’) and absence (three outer annuli, ‘No-Dox’) indicate potential genetic mechanisms supporting positive r (growth rate), K (carrying capacity) and resistance adaptation; a change in DNA detected in the sequencing protocol is shown in red (reduction) and blue (increase; and white is complete loss), respectively, with respect to no mean change (in grey); the inner ring (black) indicates genome position and three replicates for each treatment were sequenced; the white region marked dlp12 shows the… Read more
A University of Washington-led team of researchers studying monozygotic (identical) twins has found that chronic sleep deprivation suppresses immune system. The research is published in the journal Sleep .
The study by N.F. Watson et al shows the transcriptomic effects of habitual short sleep on dysregulated immune response and provides a potential link between sleep deprivation and adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory outcomes. Image credit: Geralt.
The study, which looked at 11 pairs of identical twins from Washington State, was headed by Dr. Nathaniel Watson, co-director of the University of Washington Medicine Sleep Center.
“Habitual short sleep duration is associated with adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory effects. Co-twin study methodologies… Read more
A team of scientists led by the University of Colorado Boulder has discovered that a gene called SLFN11 — which encodes a protein known as Schlafen family member 11, or Schlafen11 — may induce a cellular response against infection by viruses including human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1). The research is published in the journal PLoS Pathogens .
Colorized scanning electron micrograph of HIV 1, grown in cultured lymphocytes; virions are seen as small spheres on the surface of the cells. Image credit: C. Goldsmith.
The human immune system contains various protein-encoding genes that are able to recognize the foreign signatures of RNA viruses and prevent their replication, providing a genetic line of defense against zoonotic (animal-based) diseases.
HIV 1, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of… Read more
A process using human stem cells can generate heart cells belonging to the external layer, the epicardium, according to an international team of scientists from the Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands and AstraZeneca in Sweden.
A model highlighting the specification of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to epicardial lineages by stage-specific modulation of canonical Wnt signaling and the long-term maintenance of hPSC-derived epicardial cells using TGF-β-signalling inhibitors. Image credit: X. Bao et al , doi: 10.1038/s41551-016-0003.
“In 2012, we discovered that if we treated human stem cells with chemicals that sequentially activate and inhibit Wnt signaling pathway, they become myocardium mu… Read more
In the Jan. 10 issue of the journal Stem Cell Reports , Dr. Michiko Mandai and colleagues at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Japan report that transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal tissue improved vision in a mouse model of end-stage retinal degeneration.
3D observation of contact between host bipolar cells (green) and graft photoreceptors (red). Image credit: RIKEN.
End-stage retinal degeneration is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in older individuals.
Patients with conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration lose vision as a result of damage to the outer nuclear layer of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells in the eye.
There is no cure for end-stage retinal degeneration, and curren… Read more
According to an international team of scientists from New Zealand and Australia, up to 76% of the world’s population is overfat. This amounts to an astonishing 5.5 billion people.
Estimated number and percentage of overfat and underfat adults and children worldwide (based on 2014 world population numbers of 7.2 billion). Image credit: Philip B. Maffetone et al , doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00279.
“The overfat pandemic has not spared those who exercise or even compete in sports,” said Dr. Philip Maffetone, CEO of MAFF Fitness Pty Ltd in Sydney, Australia.
Dr. Maffetone and his colleagues from the Auckland University of Technology and MAFF Fitness put forth a specific notion of overfat — a condition of having sufficient excess body fat to impair health — in their article published in the journal Frontie… Read more
A novel method of stimulating the renewal of living stem cells in tooth pulp using an Alzheimer’s drug called Tideglusib has been discovered by scientists at King’s College London, UK.
Tideglusib treatment shows complete repair with vital dental pulp after 6 weeks. Image credit: V.C.M. Neves et al , doi: 10.1038/srep39654.
Following trauma or an infection, the inner, soft pulp of a tooth can become exposed and infected.
In order to protect the tooth from infection, a thin band of dentine is naturally produced and this seals the tooth pulp, but it is insufficient to effectively repair large cavities.
Currently dentists use artificial cements or fillings, such as calcium and silicon-based products, to treat these larger cavities and fill holes in teeth. This cement remains in the tooth and fails to dis… Read more
A team of scientists at Michigan State University has discovered that a potential new drug, called CCG 203971, reduces the spread of melanoma cells by up to 90%. The findings are published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics .
Melanoma is a disease in which malignant cells form in melanocytes. Image credit: Ibdipcan2015 / Terese Winslow / CC BY-SA 4.0.
The small-molecule drug compound goes after a gene’s ability to produce RNA molecules and certain proteins in melanoma tumors.
This gene activity causes the disease to spread but the compound can shut it down. Up until now, few other compounds of this kind have been able to accomplish this.
“It’s been a challenge developing small-molecule drugs that can block this gene activity that works as a signaling mechanism known to be important in melano… Read more